Early Online (Volume - 6 | Issue - 1)

Extraction of DNA from face mask recovered from a kidnapping scene

Published on: 7th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9395237994

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction has considerably evolved since it was initially performed back in 1869. It is the first step required for many of the available downstream applications used in the field of molecular biology and forensic science. Blood samples is one of the main body fluid used to obtain DNA. This experiment used other body fluids such as saliva, sweat tears and mucus. There are many different protocols available to perform nucleic acid extraction on such samples. These methods vary from very basic manual protocols to more sophisticated methods included in automated DNA extraction protocols. This experiment used extraction kit (Zymo research). The DNA result from isolated saliva samples on the facemask range from 133.7, 213.6, 599.1 and 209.1 mg/ml. theoretically; such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 707.7, 202.5, 99.2, and 62.6 mg/ml. Theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 615.3, 66.2, 78.5, and 68.2 mg/ml. theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. Extracted DNA from saliva and sweat produced visible bands on agarose gel, mucous stain produce obscure band on agarose gel and the tears stain produce invisible bands. DNA from sweat satin, saliva stain, mucus stain and tears stain in face mask can be used as alternative for forensic investigation.
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Genetic identification of three exhumed human remains at a hospital in Ghana: a forensic case report

Published on: 7th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9395224000

DNA identification is very important in cases of high decomposition of dead bodies, in which the bodies cannot be identified by physical means.To compare the results of DNA typing, it is necessary to have related subjects with which to perform comparative analyses. Such tests are normally performed by comparing DNA profiles from people known to be immediate family members of the presumptive victim, such as parents or children because they share half of their genetic material with the unidentified.We report on how DNA analysis was used to solve a case of mixed-up bodies at a local mortuary in Ghana, West Africa. Two families and three buried human remains were in contention in this case. The first body (E9) was buried three months before exhumation. The second body (E11) was buried two and a half months before exhumation whiles the third body (E10) was buried a month before exhumation. Exhibit E5 was taken from an alleged child of the deceased, E11. Toenails of the exhumed bodies were sampled by a pathologist and used for DNA extractions using the QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes. All samples gave a quality amount of genomic DNA after quantification. DNA was amplified with a GlobalFiler PCR amplification kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes.The human remains (exhibit E11) cannot be excluded as the biological father of the child (exhibit E5) because they share common alleles at all 23 genetic loci. The applicable combined paternity index was 17218125604.492 assuming a prior probability of 0.5. The probability of paternity is 99.99999999%. Based on this relationship testing, one of the bodies was successfully identified and handed over to the family for re-burial.
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Rapid and sensitive identification of cow and buffalo species and gender in tissue/meat samples impounded from different spots in Delhi NCR India by Real Time PCR

Published on: 12th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9395225158

The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of species identification of unknown biological samples for forensic applications, especially in illegal trade of animals as well as meat fraud. Meat fraud and adulteration not only affects the market but also increases the risk of religious and ethnic conflicts around the world [1]. In this study, species-specific and gender differentiating Real time PCR technique was employed to analyse 15 meat samples collected from a suspected site. Out of 15 samples collected from suspected site, 54% and 13% samples were of Cow and buffalo origin respectively. All 54% cow samples were of male while one each of buffalo were of male and female origin. Two samples were inconclusive. These findings indicated that species and gender-specific PCR is very sensitive and can be used for forensic species identification and the detection of meat fraud and adulteration.
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A study on the determination of sex using lip print patterns among indigenes of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Published on: 28th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9406521878

The lip print pattern is the characteristic pattern of the wrinkles and grooves present on the labial mucosa. This study evaluated the determination of sex among indigenes of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using lip print patterns. 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females), aged 18-25 years participated in the study. With written consent, lip prints were collected from the subjects. Samples were analyzed using Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification of lip prints. The lip samples were analyzed as a whole and then divided into six portions Right Upper Portions, Middle Upper Portion, Left Upper Portion, Right Lower Portion, Middle Lower Portion and Left Lower Portion and analyzed differently. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and T - test analysis. The result shows that the most prevalent lip print in males considering the lip as a whole is Type I (29%) while that of the females is Type I’ (32%). In six portions, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the lip print patterns in male and female subjects in the Right Upper Portion (25.960), Left Upper Portion (15.455) and Middle Left Portion (19.948) suggesting that these portions can be effectively used for sex determination among these indigenes. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the thickness of lip in males and in females but, the lower lip was significantly thicker (p < 0.01) than the upper lip in both gender. Results also showed that the length of lips in males was significantly longer (p < 0.01) than that of females. This study, therefore, concludes that determination of sex among indigenes of Akwa Ibom State using lip length and lip print patterns in specific portions of Right Upper Portion, Left Upper Portion and Middle Left Portion can be effectively done.
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Forensic science deals with safety armour during warfare explosives

Published on: 28th February, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9435274079

ems. Preliminary field tests may be used for screening the debris on the explosion site. They include commercially available explosive vapor detectors and chemical color tests. Like post-explosion residues, personal items suspected to contain traces of explosives and hand-swabs, are often heavily contaminated. It is therefore of major importance that the analytical procedures have to include good screening, clean-up, and extraction methods. The main explosives dealt with in this chapter include nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4,6, N-tetranitro-N-methyl aniline (tetryl), nitrate esters, such as ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerin, NG), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitramine explosives, such as 1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, (RDX) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX), as well as mixtures containing one or more of these explosives. Additional explosives include triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), NH4NO3.
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A study on cyber financial frauds in the district of Jamtara, Jharkhand

Published on: 16th May, 2022

The study has been undertaken to investigate the determination of digital financial fraud (cyber fraud) in Jamtara district of Jharkhand (the hub of cyber fraudsters) the basic tools & techniques which are used by the offenders and to find out the socio-economic condition of their social life & find the new challenging in cybercrime investigation and to find out the more secure way of digital financial flow, by using survey research method and work on secondary as well primary data which was related to this study, cybercrime especially financial fraud becomes the new challenging task for law enforcement agencies.Digital financial frauds are being within an undefined jurisdiction so it becomes more difficult to investigate the cases and due to other different public as well private sectors of service providers like the telecom companies and the banks are unable to make the defensive system for their customer also. This is the main reason for delays in cyber-related case investigation and a very low conviction rate in cyber-related cases.
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Unconventional powder method is a useful technique to determine the latent fingerprint impressions

Published on: 23rd August, 2022

Background: Fingerprint development techniques are being used for a long time and are considered one among the oldest methods in forensic science used to identify suspects. Fingerprints are one of the most significant types of physical evidence. There are various types of fingerprint patterns such as visible, plastic and latent. In criminal investigation cases, chance fingerprint impressions are mostly found at the crime scene. These prints are generally invisible and therefore require several development methods. The powder dusting technique of developing fingerprints involves the application of fine powder on the impression of the print with the help of a brush such as glass fiber or a camel hair brush. Main text: This paper rather focuses on various unconventional powder methods than the widely used conventional ones. This will help identify other cheaper, non-toxic powders that are commonly available as an alternative to the expensive, toxic ones. The author’s main aim is to provide a collective review of the work of other scientists in order to identify everyday materials, commonly available that can be used as possible means to develop a fingerprint impression. Conclusion: For a better result, the unconventional powder is used on different surfaces i.e. porous, non-porous, and semi-porous for latent fingerprint impressions. After developing impressions on different surfaces, we conclude our result that unconventional powder is very useful. 
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Ultraviolet fluorescent detection of elevated bilirubin in dried blood serum

Published on: 23rd September, 2022

Increased levels of bilirubin in blood serum may result from numerous physical conditions including hepatitis, cirrhosis, enzyme deficiency, drug reactions, autoimmune disorders and physiological trauma. No presumptive test for high bilirubin levels in blood serum stains currently exists, which could prove useful in the assessment of crime scenes involving victims with one of the above disorders. Here, the use of ultraviolet 365 (UV 365) is described as a simple, nondestructive method for the detection of blood serum containing elevated levels of bilirubin.
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