Short Review

Variation in Genuine Handwriting While Writing on an Unusual Surface

Nisha Potle, Sakshi Hemant Chavan, Yash Hari Kekane, Snehal Umesh Tembhurne, Nitin Pandey* and Yash Ranjeet dalvi

Published: 24 July, 2023 | Volume 7 - Issue 1 | Pages: 025-033

Forensic handwriting analysis is a specialized field within forensic science that aims to identify and compare handwriting samples for investigative purposes. This scientific note provides an overview of the fundamental principles, methodologies, and techniques involved in the examination of handwriting evidence. The note explores the importance of handwriting analysis in criminal investigations, discusses the underlying scientific principles, and highlights the challenges faced by forensic experts in this field. Additionally, it explores the advancements in technology that have aided the analysis of handwriting and conclude with the potential future directions of research in forensic handwriting analysis. This study focuses on the natural variation that occurs due to the unusual surfaces of tables and bricks, the variation occurs mostly in the class characteristics of the person like slant, speed, line quality, alignment, etc. Samples are collected on two different surfaces; a table and a wall (smooth and rough surfaces). And on the basis of these two surfaces, the variations in the characteristics of the individual are observed. The significance of the research is to find out the range of natural variation that occurs in the individual handwriting whenever there is a change in the writing surface.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jfsr.1001046 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Variation; Handwriting; Slant; Alignment


  1. Austin AE, Byard RW. Skin messages in suicide--an unusual occurrence. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013 Aug;20(6):618-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.03.017. Epub 2013 Apr 4. PMID: 23910845.
  2. Huber RA, Headrick AM. Writing identification: Facts and fundamentals, New York: CRC Press. 1999.
  3. Ellen D. Scientific examination of documents: Methods and techniques. 3rd Edition, Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC: CRC Press. 2006.
  4. Joshi MC, Garg RK. Examination of writing on an unusual surface in a suicide case: Dead persons do tell tales – conduct a forensic investigation for the cause of humanity and justice. Problems of Forensic Sciences. 2015; 101: 50–59.
  5. Alston J, Taylor J. Handwriting: Theory, research and practice. London, UK: Croom Helm. 1987.
  6. Bain AM. Handwriting disorders. In A. M. Bain, L. L. Bailet, & L.C. Moats (Eds.), Written language disorders: Theory into practice. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. 1991; 43-64.
  7. Tumram NK, Ambade VN. Engraved Suicide Notes: The Last Note Written on Body by Metallic Object. J Forensic Sci. 2016 Jan;61 Suppl 1:S256-8. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.12927. Epub 2015 Aug 10. PMID: 26258290.
  8. Ziviani J, Elkins J. An evaluation of handwriting performance. Educational Review. 1984; 36(4): 249-261.
  9. Sandler AD, Watson TE, Footo M, Levine MD, Coleman WL, Hooper SR. Neurodevelopmental study of writing disorders in middle childhood. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1992.
  10. Tarannum A, Mishra MK, Prasad R, Lawrence R, Saran V. Evaluation of similarities among conventional and unconventional writing for qualified opinion. International Journal of Social Relevance & Concern. 2015; 3: 44–48.
  11. Tattoli L, Gauselmann H, Buschmann CT. A rebus to say goodbye: a suicide note on a bedsheet. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2017 Dec;13(4):500-503. doi: 10.1007/s12024-017-9895-0. Epub 2017 Jul 1. PMID: 28668986.
  12. Behera C, Rautji R, Krishna K, Kumar A, Gupta SK. Suicide note on the palm: three case reports and discussion of medico-legal aspects. Med Sci Law. 2014 Apr;54(2):84-7. doi: 10.1177/0025802413496410. Epub 2013 Aug 28. PMID: 23986149.
  13. Behera C, Swain R, Bhardwaj DN, Millo T. Skin suicide note written in mehndi (henna). Med Leg J. 2016 Mar;84(1):39-41. doi: 10.1177/0025817215614145. Epub 2015 Nov 26. PMID: 26612577.
  14. Demirci S, Dogan KH, Erkol Z, Gunaydin G. Unusual suicide note written on the body: two case reports. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009 Sep;30(3):276-9. doi: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e318187e050. PMID: 19696586.
  15. Cadola L, Cuany S, Weyermann C, Marquis R. Spray paint writings on walls: Is conventional reference material adequate for comparison, Journal of the American Society of Questioned Documents Examiners. 2018; 21(2): 3–11.
  16. Levinson J. Questioned documents: A lawyer’s handbook. San Diego, San Francisco, New York, London, Boston, Sydney, Tokyo: Academic Press. 2000.
  17. Osborn AS. Questioned documents 2nd Edition. Albany, New York: Boyd Printing Co. 1929.
  18. Pandey N, Sharma V, Chandel B, Bhandari D. The Comparative Study Of Handwriting Variation Among The Sports Persons Especially Weight Lifters. Asian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2022; 1(2): 69-77.
  19. Kelly JA. An unusual writing surface and consideration, Journal of Police Science and Administration. 1978; 6(3): 282−285.
  20. Graham S. Issues in handwriting instruction. Focus on Exceptional Childre. 1992; 25(2): 1-13.


Similar Articles

  • Age Estimation Reports: Where do we stand?
    Sakher Al Qahtani* Sakher Al Qahtani*. Age Estimation Reports: Where do we stand?. . 2019 doi: 10.29328/journal.jfsr.1001016; 3: 004-008
  • Variation in Genuine Handwriting While Writing on an Unusual Surface
    Nisha Potle, Sakshi Hemant Chavan, Yash Hari Kekane, Snehal Umesh Tembhurne, Nitin Pandey* and Yash Ranjeet dalvi Nisha Potle, Sakshi Hemant Chavan, Yash Hari Kekane, Snehal Umesh Tembhurne, Nitin Pandey*, Yash Ranjeet dalvi. Variation in Genuine Handwriting While Writing on an Unusual Surface. . 2023 doi: 10.29328/journal.jfsr.1001046; 7: 025-033

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?